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WHO The World Health Organization estimates that about one third of the world's population (two billion people) is infected with M. tuberculosis. One in 10 of these will go on to develop the disease. Most cases of TB occur in developing countries in Africa and Asia. In 2005, TB killed 1.6 million people; over half of these deaths occurred in Asia.
In the UK, about 8,000 cases of TB are reported each year, but this number is rising slowly. Nearly half of all cases in the UK occur in London.
Many people who become infected with TB don't realize they have been exposed to the infection because their immune system successfully fights it off. When this happens, the bacteria become coated in tiny tubercles (round lesions), usually in the lungs. These can sometimes be seen on a chest X-ray. The bacteria are still in the body, but there are no symptoms and it can't be passed on to other people. This is called latent TB.
Depending on how effectively your immune system fights the infection, you may have:
* No symptoms at all
* Minor symptoms for a few weeks, which then go as you fight the infection off
* No symptoms at first, but symptoms and active TB develop in the following weeks or months
If your immune system successfully fights the infection, you will be immune to TB.
Sometimes latent tuberculosis becomes active years later. This is known as post-primary TB, and is more likely to happen if your immune system is weakened by other problems such as HIV, poorly controlled diabetes, or if you are underweight. About one in 10 people infected with TB bacteria go on to develop active TB at some point in their life.
A person with active TB will have symptoms, which could be:
* Swollen glands, especially in the neck
* Appetite Loss
* Chest pain when you breathe in, caused by inflammation of the membranes lining your lungs (pleurisy)
* A persistent cough - there may also be lots of phlegm, even sometimes containing blood
* Loss Of Weight
* Night sweats
You can catch TB by breathing droplets in the air that contain the bacterium M. tuberculosis. These are spread through the air when someone with TB coughs or sneezes. TB is only infectious when it affects the lungs (See Symptoms). Although it's spread through the air, you need to be closely exposed to a person with TB for some time before you catch it. People most commonly catch TB from people they live or work with.
You are more likely to get TB if you:
* Already have a weakened immune system (eg from HIV/AIDS or from taking medicines that suppress your immune system)
* Have diabetes
* Regularly come into contact with people who have TB lung infection
* Are young or elderly
* Are malnourished
* Smoke or drink alcohol excessively
* Live in overcrowded housing
* Travel to, or come from, places where TB is common
So by avoiding the factors given above we can also stop TB
Another most important reason in eradicating the TB is that we must get a check up by tests that either we have this disease or not. The most common test for TB is the tuberculin test. The test detects latent TB and is also used as part of vaccination programmes.
In either case, the doctor or nurse is looking for a raised red reaction on your skin. If you have no reaction, you haven't been exposed to TB, which means you can be immunized (see Immunization). People with either active or latent TB are treated with a combination of antibiotic tablets to kill the bacteria. Treating latent TB prevents the infection becoming active.
You may need to go to hospital for the first week or so, especially if you are very ill or thought to be very infectious. However, some people can be treated at home...
If you notice any of these symptoms, don't stop taking the medication, but talk to your doctor as soon as you can - an alternative treatment may be needed.
The vaccination strategy in the targets people who are most at risk of getting TB, such as:
* babies born in areas where TB is common
* people who have immigrated from a country where TB is common, or their children
* health care workers and laboratory staff
* people who intend to travel to a country where TB is common
The vaccination isn't usually recommended for people over 45 unless they are in a high-risk group such as health care workers. Once you have had the immunization, you won't need to have it again.
Before giving the vaccination, your doctor or nurse must first check whether you are already immune to TB. This is done with the tuberculin test (see Diagnosis).
If the test is positive, this means you have been exposed to the TB bacteria and you are already immune. You will not be given the BCG vaccination. Depending on the size of the skin reaction, you may be referred for more tests, such as an X-ray and a phlegm test, and possibly treatment for TB.
People who aren't already immune are given the vaccination either as a single needle injection, or with a multiple needle device similar to the one used for the Head test. The injection is given to the top of the left arm (or the right arm in left-handed people).
It's rare to get a strong reaction to the vaccination, but a small ulcer on the skin of the arm often forms. This may take several weeks to heal properly. A flat scar often develops later. This is normal and a sign of successful immunization.
So in the end, we can conclude that TB can be stopped by following major factors.
* People must be aware about its signs and symptoms.
* They must know cause of spread.
* Seminars, Walks and other awareness programs like this ‘essay competition’ should be held to stop TB.
* Government and private sector (e.g. pharmaceutical companies or private hospitals owners) should make planning and provide facilities like Diagnosis, treatment including medicines to the victims as well as susceptible individuals.
* Print as well as electronic Media which has become now a day a great source to change the minds of people can aware the people all about the disease which will help to Stop TB.
* School, College, University students as well as teachers must be aware of all about TB and also aware other common people by daily discussions and by seminars, walks, debates, dramas even through singing songs against TB.
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